Abduvaly Jonmurodov, Jamshed Bobokalonov, Surayo Usmanova, Zayniddin Muhidinov and LinShu Liu
Chemistry Institute of the Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Fat and wax (F&W) can be removed from raw plant materials prior to pectin extraction by a two-step procedure using mixing solvents as recently developed in our laboratory. In this study, we compared the F&W contents in the peel, seeds, roots, and pomace of several main fruits in Tajikistan. It was found that the yield of total F&W increased in the sequence of grape cakes < pumpkin fruit < the roots of Eremurus H. < peach pomace < sunflower head residues < grape seeds < apple pomace < apricot pomace with the highest content of 22.5% in apricot; while the amounts of alcohol soluble compounds (ASC) extracted from total F&W showed a different order that was: apple pomace < the roots of Eremurus H. < grape seeds <apricot pomace < pumpkin fruit <sunflower head residues < peach pomace < grape cake from Isabella grape. By our method, the solvents used for defatting were able to reenter the system for pectin extraction and the isolation of oligo-saccharides and polyphenol, etc. The collections of F&W are valuable for the uses in food and pharmaceutical industries as additives, or coating and shellac materials.
Keywords: Fat and wax, oligosaccharides, pomace, seed, plant root, organic solvent.